- In ancient pagan times doctors had a dual role, they could heal and also kill.
- Doctors willing to perform abortions operated on the outer boundaries of the medical profession.
- The Oath, with its prohibition on performing abortion and euthanasia, conflicted with the legalisation of abortion.
- It has been necessary to separate the idea of abortion from the idea of killing.
- "Semantic gymnastics" are necessary to rationalise abortion and euthanasia because while a new ethic is being accepted, the old one has not yet been rejected.
- The acceptance of the attitude of "a life not worthy to be lived led to the Nazi euthanasia programme.
This Oath was the ethical foundation and guiding light for medical practice.
In ancient pagan times doctors had a dual role, they could heal and also kill.
The earliest known medical guild was established, on the island of Cos in the Aegean Sea. While other physicians were seeking magic cures, Hippocrates began teaching that every disease had only natural causes.
It is for this reason Hippocrates is known as the "father of medicine."
The Greek doctor Hippocrates (460-377 BC) believed that the virtuous doctor must reject any role in killing, and be devoted to the arts of healing.
The inspirational noble standards of the Hippocratic Oath gained universal acceptance .
In the ancient world of Arabia, doctors took a similar oath: "I will not give my patients any poisonous drug, if they ask first, nor will I advise them thus, nor aid in a miscarriage."
Throughout history in the western world, the Oath was the universal standard. There were always a minority of doctors prepared to perform abortions, but they operated on the outer boundaries of the medical profession.
The Oath of Hippocrates
I swear by
Apollo, the Physician, and Aesulapius and Health and All-Heal and All the
Gods and Goddesses that, according to my ability and judgement, I will
keep this Oath and Stipulation:
How the Hippocratic Oath was allowed to atrophy
The Enlightenment challenged the ascendancy of Christian moral absolutes. By the early 20th century, secular humanism was increasingly dominant. In the Soviet Union, the ideology of Marxist-Leninism introduced and sanctioned abortion on demand as social progress.
The Sexual Revolution of the 1960s effectively ensured the retreat of Christian values from the public domain. The 1967 British Abortion Act , allied with the emerging feminist movement, triggered the wave of legal abortion that would sweep through the western world over the next decade.
A crucial factor with the passing of the 1967 Abortion Act was the overnight conversion of the British medical establishment. Once the law was passed by Parliament , the establishment ended any opposition and accepted the new legal reality. Doctors who continued to oppose abortion found themselves a minority within the profession and facing peer disapproval within their practices.
The Oath and Medical Reasons for Abortion
The late Dr H.P.Dunn was one of New Zealand's most well-known obstetricians and gynaecologists. He was a prolific writer and resolute opponent of abortion. Dr Dunn was adamant: "Abortion has nothing to do with health. That means, if all abortions were stopped tomorrow, there would be no deleterious effect on either personal or national health. I made this point years ago in a major article on therapeutic abortion in which I reviewed the world literature through over 60 references and concluded that there are no medical indications for abortion."
(Dunn H.P. "Therapeutic abortion in New Zealand " NZ Medical Journal, 1968)
The Oath and Changes in Medical Ethics
Dr J.P.Wilkie, in "Why Can't We Love Them Both?" illustrated the change of policy in the American Medical Association's ethical leadership, by quoting from editorial in the Journal of California State Medical Association, September 1970:
"The reverence of each and every human life has been a keystone of Western medicine, and is the ethic which has caused physicians to try to preserve, protect, repair, prolong and enhance every human life."
"The very considerable semantic gymnastics which are required to rationalise abortion as anything but taking a human life would be ludicrous if they were not often put forth under socially impeccable auspices. It is suggested that this schizophrenic sort of subterfuge is necessary because, while a new ethic is being accepted, the old one has not yet been rejected."
History has shown that changing people's attitudes is much easier if verbal engineering precedes social engineering. When scientists want to do something the public abhors, they simply change the terminology. They either use a euphemism or use technical jargon that nobody really understands.
As an example of this, in September 2004, Leonard Zon, president of the International Society for Stem Cell
Research (ISSCR) sent out a memo which stated:
"Nuclear transfer (NT) should be used instead of 'therapeutic cloning'. Cells created by nuclear transfer should be described as 'NT stem cells' or 'NTSC'. If an acronym is used for human embryonic stem cells, "HESC" should be used. If we use these terms consistently, the public, journals, newspapers and magazines will follow our lead and use adequate terminology. The negative connotation of the commercial term 'therapeutic cloning', make a change in terminology necessary..."The practice of changing the meanings of words and phrases, in an effort to change the way the public views the issue of abortion, has added to the confusion.
Abortion rights advocates refer to themselves as 'pro-choice' but have been labelled as 'pro-abortion' by their opponents. Those opposed to abortion call themselves 'pro-life' while their opponents call them 'anti-choice,' 'anti-abortion,' and even 'terrorists.'
The foetus (the Latin word for 'young one') has been variously termed: 'unwanted pregnancy,' 'product of conception,' 'sub-human,' 'non-person,' 'parasite,' 'sexually transmitted disease,' feto-placental unit,' 'blob,' 'unborn baby,' 'pre-born baby' and even just 'baby.'
Euphemisms for abortion include: 'women's health care,' 'termination of pregnancy,' 'women's reproductive rights,' 'the right to choose,' and 'procedure.'
Then and now: 1871 to 1970
Dr Wilkie then contrasted the AMA's attitude on abortion from the 1870's to 1970:
What is abortion?
1859 - "The slaughter of countless children; such unwarranted destruction of human life."
1871 - "The work of destruction; the wholesale destruction of unborn infants."
1967 - "The interruption of pregnancy; the induced termination of pregnancy."
1970 - "A medical procedure."
What should the ethics of abortion be?
1871 - "Thou shalt not kill. This commandment is given to all without exception. It matters not at what stage of development his victim may have arrived."
1967 "This is a personal and moral consideration, which in all cases must be faced according to the dictates of the conscience of the patients and her physician."
Who should perform abortions?
1871 - "It will be unlawful and unprofessional for any physician to induce abortion."
1970 - "Abortion should be performed only by a duly licensed physician."
Who are doctor abortionists?
1871 - "Men who cling to a noble profession only to dishonour it, false brethren, educated assassins, modern Herods, the executioners."
1967 - "Conscientious practitioners, conscientious physicians."
What should be done to physician abortionists?
1871 - "These men should be marked as Cain was marked; they should be made the outcasts of society."
1970 - They should be permitted to perform as long as they take place in an accredited hospital."
How did the AMA deal with doctor abortionists back in the 19th century, when it was first formed?
According to W.Brennan, in 1871 the AMA recommended dealing with medical abortionists in the following manner:
"These men should be marked as Cain was marked; they should be made the outcasts of society. Respectable men should cease to consult with them; should cease to speak to them, should cease to notice them except with contempt. Resolved, that we repudiate and denounce the conduct of abortionists, and that we will hold no intercourse with them professionally or otherwise, and that we will, whenever an opportunity presents, guard and protect the public against the machinations of these characters, by pointing out the physical and moral ruin which follows in their wake."
The gradual change in Germany from the 1920s into World War II
Dr Leon Alexander, a psychiatrist at the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials, interviewed the Nazi doctors involved in euthanasia and medical experiments on prisoners. In 1949, he wrote on the lessons to be learned.
"This attitude in its early stages concerned itself merely with the severely and chronically sick. Gradually the sphere of those to be included in this category was enlarged to encompass the socially unproductive, the ideologically unwanted, the racially unwanted, and finally all non-Germans. But it is important to realize that the infinitely small wedged-in lever from which this entire trend of mind received its impetus was the attitude towards the non-rehabilitable sick."
(L. Alexander, "Medical Science Under Dictatorship", New England Journal of Medicine, Vol 241, July 14th, 1949)